Intelligent concrete research and development
Abstract: Intelligent concrete modern materials and modern science and technology a product of the combination of traditional concrete material advanced stages of development. Recalling the history of the development of smart concrete and study the status quo, smart concrete prospect of the development trend and potential applications of the research on the issue should be noted.
Key words: intelligent concrete research and development
2.建筑 摘要 英文翻译
Abstract: Someone settles down the Limited company office building to be situated at Chang Xiujie and Hong Yinlu the road intersection, by the economic development zone, the wetland park, the Xiuzhou newly developed area, the canal newly developed area, the city administration center is surrounded supports, adjoins to the urban green lung, will develop the key direction in the future for the city. The area 655.3 square meters, the total floor space 5949.8 square meters, the total height of building is 33.40 meters, underground, ground nine, belong to two kinds to construct highly. This project's construction structural style 珐抚粹幌诔呵达童惮阔is the portal frame construction, the structure security rating second-level, the service life is 50 years, the earthquake resistance fortification intensity is 6 degrees. The architectural design elevation ±0.000 is equal to the Yellow Sea elevation 3.42 meters. 百分百正确。
Intelligent concrete research and development.As she was very fussy, it took her a long time to pick on one. Already at the end of his patience the salesman was afraid that she might change her mind again so he tried to flatter her: "An excellent choice, madam. You look at least ten years younger with this hat on!" To his dismay, the lady took off her hat at once and said: "I don't want a hat that makes me look ten years older as soon as I take it off. Show me some more hats!"Recalling the history of the development of smart concrete and study the status quo, smart concrete prospect of the development trend and potential applications of the research on the issue should be noted.。
.The features of a city are its buildings. As a factor most reflecting the times, society and nation,the buildings give overall and integrated expression to the national tradition, regional features spirit of the times and the social value. When you walk along the financial street of the Bund and the commercial street of East Nanjing Road and among the villas and gardens of Xujiahui, you can feel the history of prosperity of Shanghai. In the past 150 years since its opening in 1843, Shanghai has gradually developed into an international metropolis as well as an important economic, trade financial and cul-tural center of China. The special development op-portunities have made the western culture, local Shanghai culture and regional cultures of China collide, co-exist and become integrated and thus make Shanghai integrate the essence of the Chinese and Foreign cultures. In this way, Shanghai has become the place of origin for the modern Chinese con-struction culture and has a unique history of con-struction culture. The modern buildings of Shanghai are rich in styles, almost covering those of almost all the periods of the world construction history. It can be said that they constitute a living world construction history. You can see the new classicism buildings, Gothic building and compromise buildings, to the modernism buildings popular in Europe and America, decoration and art buildings and the new classicism Chinese buildings. The number of the styles, the complexity of the types and the grand scale of those builds are beyond match in this world. They give a comprehensive reflection of the evolution of the modern society and cities and also provide a key to learn the culture of Shanghai and the history of modern China. 漫步街头，寻找城市的足迹，最显而易见的是城市的建筑.建筑是文化领域中最具有时代性、社会性和民族性的因素，整体而又集中地体现了民族传统、地域特性、时代精神和社会的价值取向.徜徉外滩金融街.南京东路商业街、徐汇区的花园别墅群间，看到的是上海兴盛的历史.自1843年开埠以后，上海在150年中，逐渐发展成为一个国际化的大都市，成为中国重要的经济中心、贸易中心、金融中心和文化中心.特殊的发展际遇，使西方文化、上海本地文化和中国不同地域文化在此相互间冲撞、并存，融合，糅合了古今中外文化的精粹，令上海成为中国现代建筑文化的策源地，拥有独特的建筑文化历史. 上海的近代建筑有着十分丰富的内涵，在近百年的建筑中，几乎囊括了世界建筑各个时期的各种风格，简直就是一部活生生的世界建筑史.从新古典主义，哥特复兴式、折衷主义到盛行欧美的现代主义建筑、装饰艺术派建筑.复兴中国传统建筑艺术的中国新古典建筑等，各种风格数量之多、种类之繁杂、规模之宏大在世界上也是罕见的.它综合反映了近代社会和城市演变的历程，是解读上海文化、研究近代中国的一把钥匙.。
迪拜帆船酒店In Dubai, say again name-drop hotels sailing hotel. The world's most luxurious hotel in the United Arab Emirates territory of Dubai, it is the hotel sailing on the first of the seven star hotels. Located in the Middle East in the united Arab emirates emirate of Dubai city in Dubai.。
"The idea is initially porcelain hotel by the united Arab emirates defense minister. Dubai, o prince, mark the figure, his dream to Dubai a Sydney opera house, the Eiffel Tower type of landmark. Through the world hundreds of stylist strange think of clever want, plus one great pocket money in Dubai and 5 years and finally created a fantastic architecture - will be powerful Islamic styles and extremely costly adornment and high-tech means, building perfect combination, the building itself won.Hotel by the British designer w.s.Atkins, appearance as a drum design filled with wind sail, a total of 56 layer, 321 meters high, is the highest in the world than in France, the Eiffel Tower hotel is on high. And splendid hotel suite, let you feel the king Arabian oil. All the rooms are two 202 of floor area of room, suite are 170 square meters, But the most widespread royal suite, more 780 meters. And all is be born glazing, can face of the Arabian sea. The most surprising is entered the room, had a steward waiting room with you explain how to use the high-tech facilities, for luxury honorable service tenet is must have the tenant is king, Arab oil in ruthlessly surprise, also let a person plaint the power of money. The most common in the luxury suites, for example, including curtain and the light switch is on the desk, laptops, Toshiba, hang on the wall can access the painting is full is authentic.Time."Porcelain engineering spent five years time, two and a half years in the Arabian sea islands, fill out two and a half years time in building itself, the use of the steel, and 9,000 tones of 250 foundation piles construction in 40 meters deep.This looks like a moving images of the hotel built in sailing on the beach, is a new form of tower a sailing. Name-drop hotels is one of the world's highest building only seven-star hotels (because of hotel equipment was too high, far more than five standards, had an exception says it do seven-star), established in December 1999, it is built in from the shoreline 280 meters are man-made Sumerian The latest name-drop hotels mix of architecture and engineering technology, charming scenery and modeling, making it look like and sky.Name-drop hotels were 56 layers, 321 meters high, higher than the Eiffel Tower in France. Hotel using double membrane structure forms, modeling is lightsome, elegant, strong membrane structure characteristics and modern style. It has double rooms, 202 of 200 meters high overlooks Dubai city restaurant. To name- drop hotels, you can realize the real meaning of "resplendent and magnificent”. It is the atrium, it's the golden most luxurious 780 meters in the presidential suite is luxuriant, especially in the first 25, furniture is plated with gold, and with a cinema, two bedrooms, a living room, one dining room between two, have special elevator. Room area from 170 square meters to 780 meters. Seven-star hotels, the lowest price affirmation is to $900, presidential suites are to 1.8 million dollars. The hotel owns eight BMW and two Rolls Royce, for all passengers directly between airports, also can from the hotel and layer 4-storey airport, 15 minutes by helicopter overlooking scenery. Air in Dubai, Guests like seafood restaurant meal, they will be in by submarines to restaurants, so they can enjoy sea before dinner.In 1999 autumn porcelain hotel opening door, welcome completion. It's luxurious degree breathtaking, experts are very difficult, I don't know which gives it a few stars, star, or five, six stars? It is without precedent, give out an exact result. Someone said, "Porcelain should to seven. Actually, a few stars in the world is not important, the key is the hotel ", "the desert and ocean between buildings and raise the human excellence of thinking and Hollywood's dream. Standing on the seashore of artificial islands, resembling a sailing, body, from head to foot article 56 layer, up 321 meters, with double rooms, in 202 set on the location of the building of the luxury restaurant overlooking the city, also a global finished top garden atrium。
我帮你找了一篇有关建筑的文章，希望我的回答能有助于你^_^Architecture（建筑学）We ask for a lot from our buildings. They have to keep out the rain, wind, rats, and bugs, not to mention our enemies. They need to store our stuff, keep us warm when it's cold, and keep us cool when it's too hot. We also like our buildings to be well constructed and beautiful. Architecture is the important art and science of making buildings. Architects are the bosses who design buildings and supervise their construction.WHAT ARE BUILDINGS MADE OF?Buildings once were made of whatever materials were available. Where forests grew, for example, people used wood. Where there were no trees, people used the earth itself. They dried mud in the sun to make bricks. In the far north, they used blocks of snow or ice.These materials aren't long-lasting, however. Mud bricks wear away. Wooden buildings catch fire and burn down. Stone won't catch fire, and it can be expected to endure. Many kinds of stone, including marble and limestone, are good materials to build with. Steel is strong and lightweight. It lets architects build tall buildings, like skyscrapers. But deciding on what materials to use isn't usually the first thing an architect thinks about. The architect needs to know the reason for the building. How will the building be used? REASONS FOR BUILDINGSShelter is the most basic reason for building. Buildings shelter us at home, at work, and at play. All buildings must shelter us from rain, wind, sun, and cold. Buildings also provide security. Some of the world's most permanent structures were built to defend against enemies. Castles had moats and drawbridges to keep enemies out, and high walls from which to pour down boiling oil on them. Some of the most impressive buildings provide places for worship. Temples, churches, and mosques must meet spiritual needs. The soaring heights of a Gothic cathedral, for example, inspire amazement and admiration. Some buildings are just for showing off. Kings and emperors insisted on grand palaces and castles. People with money have always demanded that architecture display their wealth. Today, large corporations, governments, and universities demonstrate their importance by putting up impressive buildings.Architects today design all kinds of buildings. Our way of life calls for office buildings, large apartment complexes, shopping centers, schools, hospitals, airports, and hotels.LANDMARK ARCHITECTUREWe judge the beauty of architecture in various ways. Some buildings have been judged especially great. In the past, architects lavished attention on religious structures. Today, many of the most exciting buildings are museums and houses. Many people think the Greek temples are the most beautiful shrines of all time. The Greeks put columns around the outside of their temples. One masterpiece is the Parthenon, a temple on a hilltop in Athens, Greece. We admire its simplicity, but the carvings on the temple were once painted bright colors.Saint Peter's in Vatican City was a major project of the 1500s. With its dome by Michelangelo, Saint Peter's influenced many state capitol buildings in the United States.America's most famous architect is Frank Lloyd Wright. A number of his buildings are national landmarks. Most famous are the Guggenheim Museum in New York City and Fallingwater, a house in Pennsylvania. The Guggenheim's spiraling ramp provides a dramatic showcase for artwork. Fallingwater overlooks a stream and waterfall. Its terraces appear to project from the surrounding hillside.Frank Gehry designs buildings that combine many irregular shapes. His Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, uses titanium metal to create a curving, lightweight surface that shimmers in sunlight.。
The design of construction organization as a guide for entire process of construction of the activities of technical and economic programmatic document, construction technology and the organic integration of construction project management product, it is the project after the construction activities in an orderly, efficient, scientific and rational manner the guarantee.
From the preparation of construction organization design characteristics: construction organization design is based on a single project targeted prepared, under normal circumstances is all construction enterprises were carried out independently, it has a strong technical and comprehensive, the need to have sufficient architectural establishment works a certain theoretical basis and practical experience. Construction organization design must adapt to the project and owners, design, supervision of special requirements, but also it must conform to relevant state laws, regulations, standards and local norms. The preparation of construction organization design must meet a basic requirement for the final of the construction process that has played the role of guidance and control, to achieve a economic benefits of technology projects with certain resources, efficiency and cost-effective construction to achieve a win-win objective.
Uniaxial stress–strain relationship of concrete confined by various shaped steel tubesK.A.S. Susantha, Hanbin Ge, Tsutomu Usami *Department of Civil Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, JapanReceived 31 May 2000; received in revised form 19 December 2000; accepted 14 February 2001AbstractA method is presented to predict the complete stress–strain curve of concrete subjected to triaxial compressive stresses caused by axial load plus lateral pressure due to the confinement action in circular, box and octagonal shaped concrete-filled steel tubes. Available empirical formulas are adopted to determine the lateral pressure exerted on concrete in circular concrete-filled steel columns. To evaluate the lateral pressure exerted on the concrete in box and octagonal shaped columns, FEM analysis is adopted with the help of a concrete–steel interaction model. Subsequently, an extensive parametric study is conducted to propose an empiricalequation for the maximum average lateral pressure, which depends on the material and geometric properties of the columns. Lateral pressure so calculated is correlated to confined concrete strength through a well known empirical formula. For determination of the post-peak stress–strain relation, available experimental results are used. based on the test results, approximated expressions to predict the slope of the descending branch and the strain at sustained concrete strength are derived for the confined concrete in columns having each type of sectional shapes. The predicted concrete strength and post-peak behavior are found to exhibit goodagreement with the test results within the accepted limits. The proposed model is intended to be used in fiber analysis involving beam–column elements in order to establish an ultimate state prediction criterion for concrete-filled steel columns designed as earthquake resisting structures. •2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Keywords: Concrete-filled tubes; Confinement; Concrete strength; Ductility; Stress–strain relation; Fiber analysis1. IntroductionConcrete-filled steel tubes (CFT) are becoming increasingly popular in recent decades due to their excellent earthquake resisting characteristics such as high ductility and improved strength. As a result, numerous experimental investigations have been carried out in recent years to examine the overall performance of CFT columns [1–11]. Although the behavior of CFT columns has been extensively examined, the concrete core confinement is not yet well understood. Many of the previous research works have been mainly focused on investigating the performance of CFT columns with various limitations. The main variables subjected to such limitations were the concrete strength, plate width-to- thickness (or radius-to-thickness) ratios and shapes of the sections. Steel strength, column slenderness ratio and rate of loading were also additionally considered. It is understandable that examination of the effects of all the above factors on performances of CFTs in a wider range, exclusively on experimental manner, is difficult and costly. This can be overcome by following a suitable numerical theoretical approach which is capable of handling many experimentally unmanageable situations. At present, finite element analysis (FEM) is considered as the most powerful and accurate tool to simulate the actual behavior of structures. The accurate constitutive relationships for materials are essential for reliable results when such analysis procedures are involved. For example, CFT behavior may well be investigated through a suitable FEM analysis procedure, provided that appropriate steel and concrete material models are available. One of the simplest yet powerful techniques for the examination of CFTs is fiber analysis. In this procedure the cross section is discretized into many small regions where a uniaxial constitutive relationship of either concrete or steel is assigned. This type of analysis can be employed to predict the load–displacement relationships of CFT columns designed as earthquake resisting structures. The accuracy involved with the fiber analysis is found to be quite satisfactory with respect to the practical design purposes.At present, an accurate stress–strain relationship for steel, which is readily applicable in the fiber analysis, is currently available . However, in the case of concrete, only a few models that are suited for such analysis can be found [3,8,9]. Among them, in Tomii and Sakino's model , which is applicable to square shaped columns, the strength improvement due to confinement 。